SE Ch.6 – Skin Care Products & Chemistry

1. What agency in the United States is responsible for ensuring the safety of our nation’s cosmetics, including makeup and skin care products?

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

2. By law, what is the difference between a cosmetic and a drug?

Cosmetics are intended to affect the appearance of the skin. Drugs are intended to cause actual physiological changes, such as the structure or function of the skin.

3. Why are INCI names used on product labels for ingredients?

INCI names ensure that cosmetic ingredients are consistently listed using the same ingredient name from product to product, all over the world. It ensure that consumers are able to easily compare multiple products.

4. What are the most common allergens in skin care products?

5. What should an esthetician do if during a facial treatment the client has an adverse reaction?

Immediately remove the product, rinse the skin with cold water, and apply cool compresses until the skin calms.

6. Name the sources that cosmetic ingredients can be derived from.

Natural sources, including plants, vitamins, or animals. Ingredients can also be synthesized in a lab using chemical compounds.

7. What is the difference between noncomedogenic and comedogenic ingredients?

Noncomedogenic ingredients will not clog pores. Comedogenic ingredients tend to clog pores.

8. What does a fragrance-free label on a product mean?

No additional ingredients have been added to the product to specifically provide a fragrance.

9. What has to be done to a product formulation in order for it to be labeled unscented?

More ingredients have to be added to mask and neutralize the natural smell.

10. What are two main categories of ingredients in cosmetic chemistry?

Functional ingredients and performance ingredients

11. Why are preservatives necessary in cosmetics?

Preservatives prevent bacteria, fungi, molds, and other microorganisms from living in a product. Preservatives also extend the shelf life of a product and protect from chemical changes that can adversely affect the product.

12. Where do botanical ingredients originate?

A botanical ingredient originates from a plant, including herbs, roots, flowers, fruits, leaves, and seeds.

13. What is the main difference between a mechanical exfoliating ingredient and a chemical exfoliating ingredient?

Mechanical exfoliating ingredients are massaged into the skin to physically polish away dead cells from the skin’s surface. Chemical exfoliating ingredients remove dead skin cells with the use of enzymes, hydroxy acids, and chemical compounds.

14. What are the two types of sunscreen ingredients, and how does each work?

Chemical and physical. Chemical sunscreen ingredients work by absorbing UV rays into the skin, changing them to heat, then releasing them from the skin. Physical sunscreen ingredients physically reflect or scatter ultraviolet radiation.

15. What four types of ingredients are beneficial for all skin types and conditions?

Antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and physical sunscreen ingredients.

16. What is the goal when treating combination skin, and what care is required?

The goal in treating combination skin is to maintain a healthy balance of water and oil. Dry or dehydrated areas need moisturizing and increased internal hydration, while oily areas require special care to reduce the overactivity of the oil glands and keep pores from becoming clogged, leading to acne.

17. What main types of ingredients are beneficial for treating dehydrated skin?

Humectants; light to rich emollients based on skin type.

18. What skin conditions and visible signs of aging can be seen in mature/aging skin?

Mature/aging skin can suffer from dryness, dehydration, inflammation, and hyperpigmentation. In addition, lines, wrinkles, sagging skin, and sun damage may be visible.

19. What are the main categories of skin care products?

Cleansers, toners, exfoliants, masks, massage products, serums and ampoules, moisturizers, products for eyes and lips, sun protection

20. What are five benefits of exfoliation?

  • Results in softer, smoother, and brighter complexion
  • Improves skin’s ability to retain moisture and lipids
  • Increases cell turnover rate; stimulates blood flow and circulation
  • Results in cleaner follicle openings; easier deep pore cleansing and extractions
  • Improves product penetration; delivery of ingredients into the epidermis
  • Provides for smoother and more even makeup application

21. What is the difference between a nonsetting and a setting mask?

Nonsetting masks are designed to remain moist on the skin to provide nourishment. Setting masks are in a base that dries and hardens after application.

22. Why does the area around the eyes require special attention, and what are some causes of problems with the skin around the eyes?

The skin around the eyes is the thinnest, most delicate skin on the entire body and requires special attention. It’s fragile, more prone to dryness, and quicker to show signs of aging and fatigue. Constant movement and squinting speeds up the creation of “crow’s feet,” and fluids can collect under the eyes and cause puffiness and dark circles.

23. What is a sun protection factor (SPF) rating?

An SPF rating determines how long a sunscreen product will protect you from UVB rays.

24. Why is retailing an important part of an esthetician’s job?

It’s necessary for an esthetician and the business to be financially successful, and having products available for purchase will help clients achieve their goals of healthy, bright, and beautiful skin.

25. What are three steps to successful retailing?

  1. Provide product education.
  2. Present precise instructions.
  3. Practice professional follow-up.

26. What are three benefits of professional skin care products compared to over-the-counter brands?

  1. Ability to customize for all skin types and conditions
  2. Higher quality and quantity of performance ingredients
  3. Concentrated and cost effective

27. List your top three most important considerations when choosing a product line.

  • Versatile range of products
  • High-quality and beneficial ingredients
  • Affordable wholesale costs and retail prices
  • Manufacturer does not require minimum order amounts or product quantities
  • Support provided by the manufacturer for product training and education
  • Support provided by the manufacturer for marketing and business
  • Recognizable and reputable product name
  • Shelf appeal; appealing and easy-to-use packaging
  • Manufacturer sells exclusively to licensed skin care professionals

28. What is a good way to determine an actual product cost?

Break down the purchase price into daily or weekly costs.