SE Ch.5 – Skin Analysis

1. Are skin types genetic?

Yes, genetics determine the type of skin one is born with. Skin can change as we age.

2. List the skin types.

Dry skin, normal skin, combination skin, and oily skin

3. What is dry skin lacking?

Dry skin does not produce enough oil. Dehydrated skin lacks sufficient water.

4. What is skin typing based on?

Skin type is based on how much oil is produced from the follicles and how much lipid content is between the cells.

5. What is the Fitzpatrick scale?

The Fitzpatrick scale is a tool used to assess a client’s ability to tolerate UV exposure.

6. Identify the reaction to UV exposure for each Fitzpatrick skin type.

  • Fitz 1: Always burns, peels with burn, does not tan
  • Fitz 2: Burns easily, usually peels, tans minimally
  • Fitz 3: Tans well, burns moderately
  • Fitz 4: Tans easily, burns minimally, experiences immediate pigment response
  • Fitz 5: Rarely burns, tans easily and significantly
  • Fitz 6: Rarely/never burns, tans easily

7. In addition to a genetic predisposition, what can cause skin to become reactive and sensitized?

Sensitive skin is easily irritated by products or by exposure to heat or sun. Specific examples include age and medications as well as exposure to chemicals, harsh products, heat, chapping from cold weather, exfoliation, extractions, or excessive rubbing.

8. Why is sensitized skin challenging to treat?

Sensitized skin has a low tolerance for products and stimulation.

9. What are the goals for treating sensitized skin?

Primary treatment goals for sensitive skin are to soothe, calm, and protect.

10. Why do clients with higher Fitzpatrick skin types have darker skin?

Clients with higher Fitzpatrick skin types have darker skin because they have the same number of melanocytes as those with lighter skin, but the melanocytes produce more melanin.

11. How can you treat the hyperkeratosis that is common in Fitzpatrick skin types 5 and 6?

Treat the hyperkeratosis with more frequent exfoliation and deep pore cleansing.

12. Which Fitzpatrick skin type is often considered the most challenging to treat?

Fitzpatrick type 4 is considered the most challenging because it becomes hyperpigmented easily.

13. What treatment can be difficult for a client of any skin color who has thick hair and thicker roots in the follicle?


14. Why do the neck and décolleté show aging more quickly than the face does?

The neck and décolleté have fewer sebaceous glands and are more susceptible to irritation.

15. What is “tech neck”?

Wrinkles on the neck due to the habit of looking down at cell phones and electronic devices.

16. What kind of products should be used on the neck and décolleté?

Antioxidants, growth factors, and moisturizers; avoid harsh ingredients.

17. How are skin conditions different from skin types?

While skin type is genetic and can change with time due to aging, internal and external factors affect the condition of a person’s skin.

18. List and define 15 common skin conditions.

Refer to table 5–3 for details on the skin conditions and descriptions.

19. List four intrinsic, or internal, factors that affect the skin.

May include genetics and ethnicity-influenced conditions; free radicals; dehydration; vitamin deficiencies; hormones; medical conditions, such as chronic illness, cancer, systemic diseases (diabetes), impaired immune function; puberty; aging; glycation; pregnancy; menopause

20. List four extrinsic, or external, factors that affect the skin.

May include UV exposure, sun damage; tanning beds; environmental exposure, pollutants, air quality; environment, climate, humidity; poor maintenance, inappropriate skin care; misuse of products or treatments, overexfoliation, harsh products; allergies and reactions to environmental factors or products; photosensitivity to the sun from medications or products

21. What is the main cause of premature extrinsic aging?

UV exposure/sun damage

22. What are five healthy habits for the skin?

Answer: (may include)

  1. Avoid sun exposure; use sunscreen daily.
  2. Eat a balanced diet.
  3. Do not smoke.
  4. Avoid excessive alcohol.
  5. Drink plenty of water.
  6. Get plenty of rest.
  7. Stay active and exercise regularly.
  8. Use beneficial skin care products and a regular home care routine.
  9. Get professional skin care treatments to maintain the results of your home care regimen and to more effectively treat the signs of aging, blemishes, or other skin conditions
  10. Implement stress relievers and maintain a calm, positive attitude.

23. List six contraindications for facial treatments.

May include certain skin diseases, disorders, or irritations must be considered individually based on the client’s overall health; use of Isotretinoin; skin-thinning or exfoliating topical medication, including Retin-A™, Renova™, Tazorac®, Differin®, or other forms of vitamin A; pregnancy; metal bone pins or plates in the body; pacemakers or heart irregularities; allergies; seizures or epilepsy; use of oral steroids (cortisones) such as prednisone; autoimmune diseases such as lupus, vitiligo; diabetes; blood thinners, including NSAIDs

24. List eight questions you would ask a client during a consultation.

Answer: Refer to the list of questions on pages 186–187.

Examples include reason for the visit; skin concerns; skin care goals; home care routine; prior treatments; any allergies (products or scents); normal state of the skin; feel of skin during different times of the day; sunscreen/SPF value; diet; water intake; activity level; smoker; other allergies; lifestyle stress; prior esthetic procedures

25. Describe the steps in a skin analysis procedure.

  1. Review the client’s health history questionnaire.
  2. Wash your hands.
  3. Look briefly at your client’s skin with your naked eye or a magnifying light.
  4. Cleanse the skin.
  5. Cover the eyes with eye pads.
  6. Use a magnifying light or similar device to examine the skin thoroughly.
  7. Look closely to determine client’s skin type, conditions present, and overall appearance.
  8. Touch the skin with fingertips to feel texture, oil and water content, and elasticity. Pay attention to T-zone.
  9. Ask questions about the skin’s appearance and the client’s health and lifestyle. Verbally describe to client what you are finding in your analysis.
  10. Apply a toner and moisturizer or sunscreen.
  11. Recommend a skin care plan and a home care regimen.
  12. Record your findings and recommendations in the client’s chart.

26. What are the areas that the esthetician needs to review during the skin analysis?

Skin type, skin condition, Fitzpatrick scale, lifestyle, stress, UV exposure, client’s skin care regimen