1. Define dermatology.
Answer: Dermatology is the medical branch of science that deals with the study of skin, including its nature, structure, functions, diseases, and treatments.
2. Name the divisions of the skin and the layers within the divisions.
Answer: The divisions of the skin and the layers within the divisions include the 1) epidermis, with the layers as follows: stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum germinativum (basal); 2) the dermis, with the layers as follows: papillary and reticular; and 3) the subcutaneous layer, or adipose or subcutis tissue.
3. Name the three types of nerve fibers found within the skin.
Answer: The three types of nerve fibers found within the skin are motor, secretory, and sensory nerves.
4. Name the two types of glands contained in the skin and describe their functions.
Answer: The two types of glands contained in the skin are sebaceous glands, which secrete sebum, and the sudoriferous glands, which excrete sweat.
5. What is the definition of skin physiology?
Answer: Skin physiology is the study of the skin’s function.
6. What are the six important functions of the skin?
Answer: The six important functions of the skin include protection, sensation, heat regulation, excretion, secretion, and absorption.
7. Define nutrition.
Answer: Nutrition is the process of converting proteins, carbohydrates, and fats into energy.
8. What are the best sources of vitamins?
Answer: The best sources of vitamins are foods.
9. Why is drinking too much water dangerous?
Answer: Drinking too much water leads to excessive swelling and a loss of sodium in the blood, which can lead to long-term heart problems.
10. Explain the effect of overexposure to the sun on the skin.
Answer: The effects of overexposure to the sun are potential burns and damage to the collagen and elastin, causing premature aging and eventually the potential for skin cancer.
11. List the factors that contribute to aging of the skin.
Answer: Environment exposure, smoking, drinking, illicit drug use, and poor dietary choices all greatly influence the aging process.
12. What is the recommendation when applying sunscreens?
Answer: Apply sunscreen at least 15 minutes before going into direct sunlight.
13. What is a skin lesion?
Answer: A skin lesion is a mark on the skin.
14. Name three forms of skin cancer.
Answer: Three forms of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma.
15. What are the ABCDE’s of preventative skin cancer?
Answer: The ABCDEs of preventative skin cancer are asymmetry, border irregularity, color, diameter, and evolution.
16. Name at least three contagious skin conditions that would cause you to not proceed with services.
Answer: Three contagious skin conditions that would cause you to not proceed with services are verruca, tinea manus, and tinea pedis.
17. What is dermatitis?
Answer: Dermatitis is the medical term for abnormal skin inflammation.
18. What is the immune response to contact allergies or irritants?
Answer: The immune response to contact allergies or irritants is histamine.
19. Name four likely places a nail technician or client may experience a skin allergy.
Answer: A nail technician or client may experience a skin allergy between the thumb and pointer finger; on the wrist, palm, or back of the hand; on the face, especially the cheeks; or on the client’s eponychium, fingertips, or the sensitive tissues of the underlying nail bed.